For the Christian there is no choice to be made between gospel and culture, and no antithesis between culture and the Christian faith. Van der Waal does not promote a false sense of optimism, but does oppose cultural pessimism. The believer is the rightful heir to this inheritance. The cultural mandate has as much a place in the New Testament era as does the mission mandate. On that basis, he calls us to cultural engagement and to living life on this created earth as whole human beings with bodies as well as spirits and souls. We are not to transform culture, and certainly not to counter it, but simply to fulfill our calling. Christians are called to be salt and light, not only through pure doctrine and preaching to save souls, but by showing how life is meant to be lived on this created earth. As part of our mission mandate, we need to be able to have meaningful dialogue between Jerusalem and Athens. That dialogue should point back to creation and the new creation (Easter), and forward to the resurrection of our bodies.